Nederlandse Grammatica

These are a collection of my notes for grammar exam at University College Utrecht. I am posting them because I believe sharing knowledge fundamentally is a good thing, and of course because I hope this can serve as a useful resource for others. I have done my best to make sure that the information on this page is correct. If, however, you find this not to be the case, please email me, and then I will update the page. The full edit history is available on Github.

Personal Pronouns

The thing that performs the action described by the verb. "Ik ga met har" -> "ik" is the one acting.

person singular plural
1de ik wij/we
2de jij/je, u (formal) jullie
3de hij (m), zij/ze (f), het (obj), hen (nonbinary) zij/ze

wij/we en zij/ze representeert "light" en "heavy" varianten.

Object Pronouns

When things are acted upon -> Ik ga met haar -> "haar" is acted upon.

person singular plural
1de mij/me ons
2de jou/je, u (formal) jullie
3de hem (m), haar (f) hen/ze

Regular Verbs - Regelmatige werkwoorden

Infinitiv -> stem + "en"

regular singular plural
1de stem infinitive
2de stem + t !EXC1 infinitive
3de stem + t infinitive

!EXC1.: verb -> subj. + informal = kun stem

Irregular Verbs - Onregelmatige wekwoorden

zijn singular plural
1de ben zijn
2de bent, !EXC1 zijn
3de is zijn
hebben singular plural
1de heb hebben
2de hebt, !EXC1 hebben
3de heeft hebben

!EXC1.: verb -> subj. + informal = kun stem

Schematized Syllables

Dutch syllables have one of the following patterns:

Boundaries for syllables occurs:

Open syllables (i.e. CV), the vocals are pronounced as their long variants. E.g. "lezen" -> CV + CVC, the first "long e" is pronounced as "ee" because CV is open. The last e however, is pronounced as "short e" because the syllable ("zen" = CVC) is closed.

Similarly, when finding the stem of a word, we have to adjust the vowel to get the correct pronunciation. "Lezen"'s stem is "Lees", not "Les". In the latter case we would've had to pronounce a short e. However, we want a long e. To achieve that within the one syllable, we have to use "ee", not "e".

Spelling - Spellen

v and z never occur at the end of a word. If they do after conjugating (e.g. finding a verb stem), v is substituted by an f and z by an s. In other words, "lezen"'s stem is "lees", not "leez", and "gefen"'s stem is "geef" and not "geev". (also notice the addition of a vocal to preserve the long pronounciation)

Plural - Meervoud

Det er fire forskjellige suffixser som brukes for aa markere flertall.

suffix regel
-s 2+ syllables and suffix -er, -el, -em, -en
-'s ends in a, i, o, u, y,
-en otherwise

Indefinite Article - Onbepaald Lidwoord

The indefinite article is "een", for all singular nouns. Confusingly, it is spelled the same as the word for 1 - een. To differ between the two, one might spell 1 as één. Eks. "Heeft jij een rugzak, maar alleen één boek?".

Furthermore, the indefinite article is only used in singular-, and not in plural form.

onbepaalde lidwoord common nouns neuter nouns
singular een een
plural nothing nothing

Wether a noun is a common- or a neuter noun often has to learned by heart. However, there are a few rules:

  1. Plural? -> always de
  2. Diminutive (ends in -je) -> het
  3. Language name, e.g. het Frans -> het
  4. other -> learn by heart..
  5. if you have to guess -> de

Definite Article - Bepaald Lidwoord

There are two definite articles in Dutch: "de" and "het". Het is only used in singular, for neuter nouns.

definite artlce common nouns neuter nouns
singular de het
plural de de

Possessive pronouns - Bezittelijke Voornaamwoorden

Possessive pronouns indicates whos possession someone or something is.

Person singular plural
1de mijn onze (de), ons (sing + het)
2de jouw/je, uw jullie
3de zijn (m), haar (f), hun(n), zijn(c) hun

"jouw" and "uw" must not be confused with "jou" and "u". The latter are personal pronouns, not possessive pronouns.

kunnen singular plural
1 ik kan wij kunnen
2 jij kunt/kan / kan jij jullie kunnen
3 hij/zij kan zij kunnen
willen singular plural
1 ik wil wij willen
2 jij wilt / wilt jij jullie willen
3 hij/zij wil zij willen
mogen singular plural
1 ik mag wij mogen
2 jij mag / mag jij jullie mogen
3 hij/zij mag zij mogen
moeten singular plural
1 ik moet wij moeten
2 jij moet / moet jij jullie moeten
3 hij/zij moet zij moeten
zullen singular plural
1 ik zal wij zullen
2 jij zult/zal / zul/zal jij jullie zullen
3 hij/zij zal zij zullen
gaan singular plural
1 ik ga wij gaan
2 jij gaat / ga jij jullie gaan
3 hij/zij gaat zij gaan

Word Order - Woord Volgorde

type order
reg. sentence, 1 verb S - V - O - rest
reg. sentence, 2 verbs S - MV - O - rest - V (infinitive)
y/n question, 1 verb V - S - O - rest
y/n question, 2 verbs MV - S - O - rest - V (infinitive)
open question, 1 verb Q - V - O - rest
open question, 2 verbs Q - MV- S - O - rest - V (infinitive)
term explanation
S Subject
V Verb
O Object
MV Modal Verb
rest the rest. of the sentence
This page was last updated on Thu Oct 13 2022
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